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Social

JD’s Bash- Biggest Bollywood Night in Udaipur

This Saturday, Oct 29 2022, Udaipurites will have the chance to don their party clothes and wear their hearts on their sleeve. From 7:00 PM onwards, DJ Kumar Swamy and DJ Ranjana, two of the leading DJs known for their explosive music, will spread their DJ magic with all the Bollywood songs at Pandora Grand Luxury Hotel- Udaipur, from 7:00 PM onwards. So if you are in Udaipur, then put on your party shoes and do attend this massive event, to groove to the explosive music played by these renowned DJs, all of which are excellent for igniting the dance floor. Allow the Bollywood music, to keep you entertained for the ideal evening at The Pandora Grand.

Check out the event details below.

About The JD Bash Event

DJ Kumarswamy and DJ Ranjana are some of those creative prodigies who are a little ahead of their time. Not just because their music can transport you to places where time seems to have stopped, but also because they manage to operate on a timeline entirely independent of the typical cycles of hysteria, influence, and career advancement that most musicians follow. Their productions and releases have become some of the most cherished and legendary themes in the music world. These phenomenal DJs consistently outperform themselves, having remixed almost all the famous Bollywood tracks. DJ Kumarswamy and DJ Ranjana, continue to work hard with exceptional talents.

Event: JD’s Bash- Biggest Bollywood Night

When: Oct 29, 7:00 PM Onwards

Tickets on sale now.

Line Up: @djkumarswamy; @ranjana.dj

Where: Pandora Grand Udaipur,

Near HP Petrol Pump,

Udaipur-Ahmedabad Highway,

Balicha, Rajasthan

So this Saturday night, be ready to put on your dancing shoes to groove to some explosive music bangers!

If you haven’t already booked your tickets, then reserve your spots before they sell out.

Hurry up, and don’t miss the chance to witness one of the biggest live Bollywood music concerts in Udaipur with @nightpulseentertainment. Mentioned herewith are the pass details:

Regular passes – Rs. 1,000 (Access to Bollywood Night)

VIP passes – Rs. 2,000 (Access to Bollywood Night & Techno After-party)

VIP table passes – Rs. 30,000 (For 10 persons)

Please Note: The above amount includes the cost of the beverages.

Be ready for a fun, energetic evening that will keep you raving all night long at Pandora Grand-Udaipur with DJ Kumarswamy and DJ Ranjana.

For bookings and queries, contact: +91-7425041114, 9587071777.

 

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Festivals

Karwa Chauth And the History Behind It

Karwa Chauth is a one-day festival which is celebrated by all married women. On this festival, wives keep a fast from sunrise to moonrise for the safety and well-being of their husbands. Even though it is difficult to maintain a fast without drinking any water or eating anything throughout the day, devoted wives perform these rituals out of great love and respect for their husbands.

If we consider the term Karwa Chauth in its literal sense, it refers to the sacrifice of “Argya” to the moon on the Chaturthi of the Kartika month using an earthen pot known as a “Karwa.” Every year, the event takes place on the fourth day of the dark fortnight of the Kartika month. There are several anecdotes connected to this festival, even if its beginnings are still quite murky. Here are a few well-known Karwa Chauth tales that illustrate the significance of this festival:

Queen Veervati’s story 

Karwa Chauth and the History Behind It

A beautiful queen named Veervati formerly reigned as the lone sibling of seven devoted and considerate brothers. She started a simple fast after sunrise on her first Karwa Chauth while staying with her parents. She was thirsty and hungry in the evening, and she was impatiently awaiting the moonrise. Her brothers were distressed to see her in such anguish. They created the illusion that the moon was in the sky by mounting a mirror in a peepal tree. As soon as Veervati broke her fast, she learned that her husband had passed away. She couldn’t stop crying and was devastated. She left right away for home, where she ran into Goddess Parvati. Maa Parvati admitted that her brothers had played a trap on her. She then observed the Karwa Chauth fast with complete devotion, and upon witnessing her commitment, Yama, the lord of death, brought her husband back to life. Women keeping the fast frequently hear this Queen Veervati Karva Chauth Katha, which is highly famous.

Queen Draupadi’s Karwa Chauth Story

Karwa Chauth and the History behind it

Arjuna and Draupadi from the Mahabharata are the next Karva Chauth Kahani on our list. When Arjuna, the person Draupadi loved the most, decided to punish himself, he travelled to the Nilgiri mountains. The rest of the Pandava brothers were having trouble without him. In this circumstance, Draupadi asked Lord Krishna what should be done to address this problem. Then Lord Krishna narrated a story of Goddess Parvati, who performed the Karwa Chauth ceremonies. Therefore, Draupadi performed the severe Karwa Chauth fast for the well-being of her husband, and the Pandavas were able to find solutions to their issues.

Karwa’s Karwa Chauth Story

Karwa was a woman who was madly in love with her spouse and had many spiritual powers as a result of this passionate love. Once, when her husband went to take a bath in the river, a crocodile attacked him. Having remembered Yama, the Lord of Death, brave Karwa now bound the crocodile with cotton yarn. She prayed to Lord Yamraj, asking him to grant her husband life and the crocodile death. But Yamraj said he couldn’t. Then, Karwa threatened to curse Lord Yama and destroy Yamdev in return. Yamraj was extremely petrified of being cursed by such a dedicated and loving wife; hence, he sent the crocodile to hell and bought her husband back to life.

Even today, married ladies pray to Karva Mata for their husbands’ health and happiness, according to the Karva Chauth Kahani that was narrated.

Satyavan and Savitri’s Karwa Chauth Story

satyavan

According to legend, Savitri pleaded for Satyavan’s life in front of Yama, the god of death, when he arrived to take his life. Yama insisted on taking away Savitri’s husband, despite the fact that she had quit eating and drinking and had followed Yama. Yama now told Savitri that she might request any other miracle, except the death of her husband. Due to her intelligence, Savitri asked Yama if he could bless her with bearing a child, which was something she desired. However, she would also not tolerate any form of betrayal because she was a dedicated and loyal wife. As a result, Yama had to give Satyavan life again so that Savitri might become pregnant.

Women and girls who are fasting on Karva Chauth day, make sure to hear Savitri’s Karva Chauth Katha. Additionally, hearing all the Karva Chauth tales highlights the significance of this fast and how old this festival is.

Why is Karwa Chauth Celebrated?

Given the aforementioned Karva Chauth stories, you might now be well aware of the significance that this event has in Hindu culture. This festival is more prominent in the northern and north-western parts of our country. The Indian Army soldiers and military officials made up a sizable portion of the male population in these areas; hence, the ladies in these areas began fasting for the safety of these real heroes. The women used to pray for the long lives of their husbands as they protected the nation from enemies.

In ancient times, women used to get married at the age of 10 to 13 in India. In such a marriage, they would not be able to enjoy their childhood or early adolescence. Additionally, communication was a major barrier back then. They, therefore, found it difficult to visit their parent’s houses, which was equally bad. Therefore, a woman had to take total responsibility for a new household from a young age. She was sent in charge of all the daily chores, including cooking and cleaning. But she was living in an unknown house alone, far from her loved ones, and she had no friends either. In times of loneliness or homesickness, where would she go?

Therefore, to address this issue, the women began to celebrate Karwa Chauth in a magnificent manner, where married women from the entire village as well as some of the neighbouring villages would gather in one location and spend the day in joy and laughter. They became friends and referred to one another as “God sisters” or “God friends.”

One could argue that the origin of this festival was a way for them to have fun and forget about being alone at their in-laws’ house. On this day, they celebrated their union and gave gifts to one another, such as sindoor, lipstick, and bracelets, to serve as a constant reminder that someone out there is always a friend.

Recently, husbands have begun to fast for their spouses as well. This act has added an extra specialness to the festival, as it represents compassion, love, and understanding on both sides.

 

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Social

Understanding Stress in Life and at Work: Myths, Facts and Means of Walking out of it.

Introduction

Stress in the context of organizational psychology has been defined “as a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.” (Luthans, 2007). An expansion of the last definition brings us to some important questions. What is stress? Is organizational stress different from daily life stress? Can we weave a life for ourselves where we are so-called stress-free? How to know that one is unable to cope with stress? In what ways does stress dampen sexual behaviour and experiences? This article makes an attempt to answer some of these questions.

What exactly is Stress?

Understanding Stress

To put simply, stress is a condition or unpleasant feeling experienced when a person perceives that the ‘demands’ faced by an individual exceed the personal and social resources that one has to deal with it. During stress, one may feel strained by “physical, mental, or emotional tension” (American institute of stress, 2021). Some amount of stress is known to enable us in moving towards our desirable goal, be it personal or professional. It sort of sets us in a momentum for change and adaptation which is healthy for everyone.

However, stress has a setup point, pretty much like the boiling point of water. Beyond that set point, it leads to clinically significant physiological and psychological outcomes. This set-point varies from person to person. The stress hormones pumping through our body usually encourage us to either fight or flight or freeze to cope with the overload. It depletes one’s healthy emotional reserves and definitely impacts sexual behaviour as well. High-stress hormones floating in our body don’t leave much room for closeness with our partners, and slowly but surely, the sexual interest, intimacy, desires and involvement starts to wither away. Another rare manifestation of acute stress in some people may be uncontrollable hypersexuality as a compensatory mechanism to seek relieves stress, coupled with low sexual satisfaction, distress and guilt. Hypersexuality shows up as ‘recurring and uncontrollable sexual fantasies’ and leads to difficulty in establishing and maintaining a relationship with a stable romantic partner because of their preoccupation with sex. It may sometimes also lead to promiscuity and infidelity in relationships. Not only sexual but other social, interpersonal and psychological behaviours may also alter due to stress. So when one is stressed out, it may be hard for a person to deal with anything other than self or the source of stress.

Stressors impacting sexual functioning may be of two kinds:

a) Major life events i.e., death of a loved one, separation, loss of job /bankruptcy etc.

b) Minor daily life events which are in the form of an ‘accumulation of small stressors’ that are constantly or frequently present, such as deadlines that never seem to be met, constant arguments with a partner, financial risks etc.

Researchers opine that it is these ‘daily hassles’, and not ‘major life events, that were more linked to sexual difficulties (Kanner,1981). The negative interaction between chronic stress and sexual functioning may extend to reproductive functioning, fecundability and fertility in both men and women. These factors taken together as a whole may lower the quality of life and sexual and relational satisfaction.

It is a common myth that “stress should be eradicated from our lives, all together”.  It’s not so. Stress appears to be a normal aspect and to an extent a healthy and evitable part of one’s life. It can lead to healthy self-growth as well. Learning ways to cope with it i.e., to “modify its magnitude and multi-system effects or become resilient to it” would be more a realistic ideology.

The sources of stress can be numerous. In the organizational context, work stress may be attributed to factors such as Intrinsic job requirements (work pattern, timing, duration, pressure, shift, new challenges), structure (physical space, climate, temperature, discomfort, consistency, transfers),  job roles (transitions, conflicts, poor differentiation of roles, ambiguity, unpredictability), growth (lack of opportunities, security, promotions, incentives, recognition, perks), interpersonal relations (with authority, peers, juniors, in teams, communication styles, responsibility allocation/taking, coordination, political, threat, domination) and intrapersonal factors (personality, temperament, belief systems, cognitive style, stereotypes, socio-cultural, developmental etc) (Luthans, 2007). In the latter context, organizational stress may take the form of daily stressors, interacting in complex fashions within a person.

How one responds to stress is an interesting variable. Just like sources of Stress, a person’s response to stress too can be acute or chronic. Acute Stress-induced ‘fight or flight or freeze reactions help to defend and built immediate protective strategies against problems. Our body takes about 90 minutes for the metabolism to return to normal. This is only when the acute response is over. The mind may still keep responding to ‘what happened to me, how and why for much longer periods of time.

Sometimes stress becomes ongoing and evolves into chronic stress. Longstanding uncontrolled stress has the opposite effect. It causes significant wear and tears to several systems such as respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrinal, Musculoskeletal, neurological, dermatological, immunological, sexual and reproductive etc.  Some of the bio-behavioural outcomes of stress may be persistent or progressive complaints of headaches, fatigability, insomnia, lethargies, worsening of psychosomatic illnesses, irritability, anger, anxiety, depression, loneliness, frustration, emptiness, avoidance, lack of enthusiasm, self-negligence,   unworthiness, hopelessness, helplessness, vulnerability, worrying, crying spells, death wishes, recourse into addictive behaviours, digital addictions,  interpersonal dissatisfactions, emotional outbursts, sexual dysfunctions and frequent relational disputes.

Stress response at a psychological level keeps evolving as we grow, with both new learning and experiences. It can be easily unlearnt and re-learnt. This means that, once we get aware of our maladaptive behaviours, we can unlearn them and turn towards more adaptive as well as healthy means of coping. A healthy stress response aids in building psychological resilience and physical recovery. It helps the biological capacity to cope with a cascade of acute and chronic stress effects.

How to Cope With Stress?

How to cope with stress

Some of the easy ways of coping with stress could be:

  • Firstly, working on personal loopholes, avoidance, minimization, excessive blaming, fantasies and denial of real issues.
  • Secondly, set some time aside each day for an unbiased self-reflective practice. The idea for the same becomes identifying one’s agendas, sources, intensity and outcomes of stress and checking effective or ineffective means of dealing with it. One may take help from trustworthy peers, friends, mentors, parents, and spouses, to do the same.
  • Third could be building healthy boundaries from stress and preventing oneself from overbooking.
  • Another strategy is balancing circadian rhythm disturbances by adopting healthy eating, adequate hygiene, grooming, dressing, nutrition, hydration, a combination of physical exercises, and relaxing and healthy sleep regimens.

Additionally, de-cluttering the mind may help. It involves re-organizing ones living environment to have a clean, fresh, arranged, aerated physical space, journalizing one’s experiences, ditching technology and reducing screen time and substituting it with other joyous activities. At times going minimalistic on self/others’ demands and doing “nothing at all” for a while also can be really helpful. Reconnecting with nature via soothing activities can also have an excellent mood-regulating effect.

Needless to say, if stress-induced symptoms are continuous for two to three weeks and are significant to cause distress or disturbances in one’s interpersonal, intimate life or socio-occupational activities, then this is a red-light situation. It warrants a general medical check-up and psychological evaluation.

In the words of the popular American author and psychotherapist Richard Carlson, “Stress is nothing more than a socially acceptable form of mental illness”. It is probably less stigmatizing and illusionary to disclose oneself as “stressed or worked up” and resort to cures for the same. Any situation/event can be the starting point of a new journey and opportunity. Seizing it can open the path to transformative growth for any individual.

References

1. American institute of stress (2022) Stress research retrieved from https://www.stress.org/stress-research

2.Luthans F, Youssef CM. Emerging positive organizational behaviour. Journal of management. 2007 Jun;33(3):321-49.

  1. Kanner AD, Coyne JC, Schaefer C, Lazarus RS. Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. J Behav Med. 1981;4:1–39.

Author Profile: Dr Ansha Patel (Bach, Masters, MPhil, PhD Clinical & Reproductive Psychology, Postdoc fellow) is a consultant clinical psychologist, psychotherapist, researcher, scientific advisor and columnist. She is affiliated with the Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychology at RNT medical college, Shantiraj and Paras hospitals, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. She is pursuing her fellowship at MAHE, FAIMER, Manipal, Karnataka. She specializes in Behavior Medicine, Adult and Women’s Mental Health. She is trained in evidence-based cognitive behavioural therapies and mindfulness-based interventions. She is also a scientific advisor to Vyana sparcolife digital fertility solutions and a peer-reviewer for indexed scientific journals published by Springler Nature, Elsevier, Wolter Kluwer, Taylor Francis and Sage groups. She is a freelancing columnist for Reproductive health club magazine & TARSHI. Profile: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1766-9558, https://www.linkedin.com/in/dr-ansha-patel-49b123214/, https://www.instagram.com/dransha_patel/. 

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Udaipur: Ideal for OTT Platforms and Television Industry

Frida Giannini once said, “Venice never quite seems real, but rather an ornate film set suspended on the water.” And that’s where we live, Udaipur, Venice of the East! It sometimes really does feel like being in an unrealistic world when you’re in the City of Lakes. For a good reason, Udaipur becomes a choice for so many filmmakers or ‘fictional storytellers’ over and over again.

Hollywood, as well as Indian film producers, adore Udaipur, so many movies have been shot here.

Despite this, the city has also been an ideal location for OTT platforms and T.V. channels lately. So many series, daily soaps and T.V. shows have been shot here too. To know about them you might have to use your fingers to scroll a bit.

1. Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai

Yeh rishta kya kehlata hai
Source: hotstar

The longest running show in the television industry’s history had its whole storyline originating from this very city, Udaipur. From introduction shots to Gangaur Pooja scenes have been shot near Pichola Lake of Udaipur. Even according to the storyline of the show, families of the main characters ‘Akshara and Naitik’ , used to reside in Udaipur itself.

yrkkh
Source: hotstar

Although it’s been so many years and after various plot twists, the show has come up with new characters. Hence, shooting has been done here recently. And the cast & crew loved to shoot here.

Diya Aur Baati Hum

diya aur baati hum
Source: hotstar

This show had our very own Rajasthani actress, Neelu Vaghela casted as “Bhabho” in it. Although Diya Aur Baati hum was portrayed in Pushkar. But when the show came to an end, makers chose Udaipur as the ideal location.

Most important and final scenes of the show when main characters ‘Sooraj and Sandhya’ died have been shot near Jaisamand Lake and Jagdish Chowk.
People of the city were overwhelmed to see the shooting as daily soaps usually have different impacts on emotions.

Four More Shots Season-2

four more shots
Source: xyz

The show received a lot of admiration and appreciation in the first season for its women-centric unconventional theme and was a visual treat to all. Although in Season-2, Udaipur brought Four More Shots Please! closer to its home and also gave the show the component of its history, culture, scenic locations and the Rajput-era palaces.

Balika Vadhu

Balika Vadhu
Source: voot

The show which brought one of the most controversial topic upfront, “Child Marriage” of Rajasthan itself. Balika vadhu gained a lot of TRP when it was started with the story of a typical Rajasthani Family. Although mostly shooting was done in different parts of Rajasthan. Udaipur also came into the range for some scenes to be shot. The show also had audience-awed Siddharth Shukla in lead.

The Jewel in the Crown

the jewel in the crown
Source: wikipedia

The Jewel in the Crown is a 1984 British television serial about the final days of the British Raj in India during and after World War II, based upon a novel. The scenes of the Nawab of Mirat’s palace were filmed at Lake Palace in Udaipur. Besides all the Mirat scenes, Udaipur was also the location for Mayapore and some Pankot scenes.

Skater Girl

skater girl
Source: netflix

The set of this Netflix (an OTT platform) movie was in Khempur, a village about 50 kms away from Rajasthan’s Udaipur. The same way that skateboarding changes the life of a girl in the movie, and the park is changing the lives of many other children in the village.

The shooting of the movie wrapped in 2019 and since then, Desert Dolphin Skate Park has been the ground for training hundreds of village children to skate for free.

Overall, it is abundantly clear that Udaipur overcame favoritism and will continue to do so. Online platforms, the television industry, or the film industry don’t matter; the city lives rent-free in their hearts. And we always feel incredibly excited & happy to welcome the cast & crew!

 

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Social

अध्यापक की भूमिका क्या बस अध्यापन तक सीमित है?

अध्यापक प्रसन्न मुद्रा में, छात्र भी प्रसन्नचित्त, अध्यापक गंभीर मुद्रा में, छात्र भी गंभीर व सहमे हुए। यानी अध्यापक का प्रतिबिंब छात्रों में देखा जा सकता है।

अध्यापक का कार्य अध्यापन तक सीमित नहीं है बल्कि वह बालक के भविष्य का निर्माता है। निश्चित ही पहला दायित्व अध्यापन है। अध्यापक की अपने विषय पर अच्छी पकड़ होनी चाहिए। निरंतर अध्ययन कर स्वयं को अपडेट रखना चाहिए। कोई भी विषय क्यों ना हो भाषा के साथ समझौता नहीं किया जा सकता है, भाषा संबंधी अशुद्धियों की शिक्षण व्यवसाय में कोई छूट नहीं है।भाषा सभी संप्रेक्षण का मूलभूत माध्यम है,भाषा बिना सारे विषय अधूरे हैं।

अध्यापन के लिए उसे नित नए नवाचार व प्रयोग करते रहना चाहिए। विभिन्न बौद्धिक स्तर, विभिन्न सांस्कृतिक व सामाजिक पृष्ठभूमि के बालकों को एक साथ समाहित करना आसान काम नहीं है। ऐसे रास्ते खोजने होंगे जिसमें हर बालक अधिगम प्रक्रिया में आगे बढ़ सके, खासतौर पर प्रथम पीढ़ी अधिगमकर्ता जिन के समक्ष कई चुनौतियां हैं जैसे भाषाई अवरोध, अनियमित उपस्थिति, शिक्षा विहीन पृष्ठभूमि, भिन्न सांस्कृतिक-सामाजिक पृष्ठभूमि, निम्न आर्थिक स्थिति तथा सहपाठियों का असहयोग। इस वर्ग  के छात्रों के साथ न्याय करना आवश्यक है।

किसी प्रकार का नकारात्मक व्यवहार (डांट या पीटना या अशब्द बोलना) स्थिति को और बदतर कर सकती है और छात्रों के विद्यालय छोड़ने की प्रवृत्ति बढ़ सकती है। इन दिनों अध्यापक द्वारा शारीरिक व मानसिक प्रताड़ना के केस निरंतर बढ़ रहे हैं जबकि आरटीई एक्ट धारा-17 या सुप्रीम कोर्ट के आदेशानुसार जारी शिक्षा विभाग के परिपत्र के तहत शारीरिक दंड पर पूर्णरूपेण रोक है इसके बावजूद  तकरीबन हर विद्यालय में छड़ी लेकर घूमते शिक्षक नजर आ जाएंगे। सवाल यह है कि शिक्षक को इस छड़ी को रखने की आवश्यकता क्यों है। क्या स्नेह से बच्चों को अनुशासित नहीं किया जा सकता है?

राजस्थान के शिक्षा मंत्री का यह बयान कि समय-समय पर शिक्षकों को खेल-खेल में शिक्षा तथा आनंददायी शिक्षा का प्रशिक्षण दिया जाता है, इसकी हकीकत यह है कि सरकारी विद्यालयों में यह दो पर्सेंट कक्षाओं में भी प्रतिबिंबित नहीं हो रहा है। बच्चों को खेल खूब पसंद होते हैं, यदि खेल द्वारा शिक्षण करवाया जाता है तो कोई कारण नहीं कि बच्चे अधिगम में रुचि न  लें या कक्षा में ध्यान ना दें। पिटाई जैसे कृत्यों की नौबत ही नहीं आएगी। यानी अध्यापन कार्य रोचक और आनंददायी  होने पर कई समस्याएं स्वत ही समाप्त हो जाती हैं।

अध्यापक की भूमिका में एक महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका शिक्षार्थियों के चरित्र निर्माण की है। यह तभी संभव है जब अध्यापक का स्वयं का चरित्र आदर्शतम व मूल्य उच्च हो। अध्यापक के शब्दों व व्यक्तित्व में समरसता होने चाहिए। छात्र अध्यापक से अनौपचारिक रूप से बहुत कुछ सीखते हैं। छात्र अध्यापक का बारीकी से अवलोकन करते हैं, उनके पहनावे को, कार्य करने के तरीके को, संप्रेक्षण के तरीके को, अपने में उतारते हैं। अतः अध्यापक का अपने हर व्यवहार के प्रति सचेत रहना चाहिए। यदि अध्यापक ब्लैक बोर्ड पर टेढ़ा-मेढ़ा, ऊपर-नीचे, अव्यवस्थित लिखता है यही स्थिति छात्रों की कॉपी में देखी जा सकती है। अध्यापक चुस्त-दुरुस्त है तो कक्षा के सभी बच्चों में वही ऊर्जा संचरित होती देखी जा सकती है। मूल्य शब्दों से नहीं बल्कि अध्यापक के व्यक्तित्व से बच्चों में उतरते हैं ।अध्यापक में धैर्य व कठिनाइयों से जूझने की क्षमता होनी चाहिए तभी वह अपने छात्रों में इन गुणों का विकास कर सकता है। आज के छात्रों में न धैर्य है ना समस्याओं से जूझने की क्षमता, यही कारण है कि छोटे-छोटे व्यवधानों से टूट जाते हैं। आत्महत्याओं का बढ़ता ग्राफ भी इसी ओर इशारा करता है।

इससे जुड़ा एक और दायित्व है, अध्यापक को परामर्श की मूलभूत समझ होनी चाहिए। बच्चा गुमसुम है, उदास है या अत्यधिक आक्रमक व्यवहार करता है तो बजाय उसे दंडित करने के उसके इस व्यवहार के तह में जाने की जरूरत है। किसी प्रकार के असामान्य व्यवहार के निश्चित ही कारण होते हैं, ऐसे व्यवहारों के प्रति समय रहते ध्यान न देने या नकारात्मक व्यवहार से लक्षण उग्र होते चले जाते हैं जो परिवार व समाज के लिए घातक साबित होते हैं।

शिक्षण एक बहुत ही पवित्र कार्य है, इस की गरिमा बनी रहनी चाहिए। शिक्षक बनना इतना आसान भी नहीं होना चाहिए कि इसे अंतिम विकल्प के रूप में लेने के रास्ते खुले रहें। शिक्षक बनने के लिए आयोजित प्रवेश परीक्षाओं का स्तर इतना चुनौतीपूर्ण तो होना ही चाहिए कि सिर्फ उन्हीं को प्रवेश मिले जिसमें अध्यापक बनने के गुण मौजूद हैं।

डॉ सुषमा तलेसरा

सेवानिवृत्त प्रिंसिपल, विद्या भवन GST कॉलेज, उदयपुर

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History and Culture

Meena Community of Mewar

History of Meena Community

The information about the Meena tribe was extensively documented by British historians and anthropologists during the colonial period. Some of them are Colonel Tod, Crooke, and Russell. It is said that the data given by the above officials have been manipulated up to some extent. Hence it was observed that most of the facts and knowledge about this tribe were blurred out. Meenas during the British rule were classified as a criminal tribe under the Criminal Tribes Act: a notorious colonial law which listed certain forest communities as ‘criminal by birth’. Post- independence this tribe was moved to the “denotified list” from the criminal list and thus a path of growth was laid out for them. There have been numerous speculations around the origin of the Meena tribe. Although there is no proof of the etymology of the tribe but it is believed to come from the word “meen” which means a fish but consuming fish is taboo and hence this is not a reliable discovery.

There have been no efforts made to know the history of the Meena tribe event by event. It is important to know that the Meena tribe was first mentioned in 500 BC.  History claims that almost 18 km far from Udaipur city flowed the Maural river. On the banks of this river developed a city called Mauran. The citizens of this city are known as Maureja or Maureda. Some others trace the term Meena to the Mauryan empire and argue that Meenas were the citizens of the Mauryan Empire and that is why even today they are known under Maureja or Maureda. There is no written historical account about the Meena tribe hence most that is known is based on oral history.

 

The Meena tribe’s history can be traced back to events that occurred in the 12th century. When writing on the Rajput states, Colonel Tod made reference to the Meena tribe. He wrote an interesting story about the origin of Meena or them coming to light. He mentioned that the state of Narmer was ruled by a Meena. When prince Sor Singh of Narmer died, his brother acquired the state illegitimately. The actual successor of the throne, that is the son of Sor Singh, was still an infant. His name was Dhola Rai. The mother of Dhola Rai was extremely upset about the unfair treatment done to his son. One day she left the city of Narmer dressed as a man with Dhola Rai in a basket. She reached Khorgoj (Jaipur) which was the home of the Meena tribe. The tired mother started plucking and eating berries from the wild. As she turned back to her son, she saw a large snake. The scared mother started yelling for help. A brahmin was passing by and comforted her saying that it was a good omen. “That the boy will achieve great things in life,” he said. And eventually, as Dhola Rai grew up he was able to acquire his father’s land back with the help of the neighbouring states.

Socio-Cultural Association of The Meena Community

As far as the settlement pattern of the Meena Community is concerned, the smallest unit is known as Dhani.  Dhani consists of the houses of the members of the villages. They are a patriarchal society. The members believe in the origin of one known ancestor. The ancestor is considered as the founder of the Dhani. The collective front of these Dhanis makes a Meena village. The Dhani-based villages of the Meena community are found in Jaipur.

However, the villages of the Meena tribes in Sawai Madhopur and Udaipur do not cover the Dhani system. What Meenas call Dhani, Bheels call “fala”. The families living in Dhani are brothers and sisters. Hence, marital relations cannot be made. Generally, a non-Meena does not reside in a Meena-Dhani. The range of the houses in a Dhani is from 2 to 20 houses.

The lifestyle of the Meena Community

Meena communities live in a compact village. Their settlement pattern is not the same as the scattered villages of Bhils. They generally prefer to live near their cultivation land, thus resulting in compact settlements. The architecture of the houses of the Meena tribe is according to the hot weather of southern Rajasthan, the walls are made of soil and the roof is flat. Partition within the house is also made by the walls out of the soil and the structure has one entrance. The stock of grains and all the random commodities are placed in the living room itself. There is this open space outside the house where men spend most of their time and the women of the house live inside the structure. Along with the cultivation of food grains the community is also involved in poultry and animal husbandry.

The saga of the forest people of Mewar is an unspoken chapter in history books. The region of Mewar is teeming with stories of heroism, sacrifice, cultural richness and above all, the supreme love for the motherland. The contribution of the forest dwellers of Mewar in that story of bravery is no less. They have remained the watchmen of the Aravalli and the Dharmarakshaks of the highest order. They have protected Bharat and Mewar against all dangers. The Maharana Mewar Foundation gives an award in the name of Rana Punja to honour the exemplary contributions of persons of tribal origin. It is the sincere attempt of this article series to bring to light, the endless contributions of the Mewar forest people in the service of ‘Eternal Mewar’ and the timeless civilization that is Bharat, especially as we celebrate the Amrit Kaal of independence.

Vande Mataram! Jai Mewar!

 

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History and Culture

The Dharmarakshaks and The History Of Mewar

The land of Mewar boasts of glorious history, culture and traditions that have survived the test of time. The story of Mewar is a brilliant saga of the survival of ‘Swadharma’ and ‘Swabhiman’ against all kinds of attacks and invasions. The valiant Sisodia Rajputs who trace their ancestry to the Surya Devata or the Sun God have fought against all attacks throughout history and remained one of the very few princely states that constantly resisted the supremacy of the rulers of Delhi during the medieval period.

Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar
Source: RajRAS

It is interesting to note, however, that it was not just the Rajput rulers who resisted attacks and fought valiantly. It was a host of other brave men and women who fought and made sacrifices to protect the honour and sovereignty of Mewar state. But for their wholehearted collective efforts, the kings might have fallen short in their sacred duty of defence of Mewar.

From the generosity of Bhamashah who provided Maharana Pratap with the resources of wealth to fight battles and the Afghan chiefs like Hakim Khan Suri who laid down their lives in Haldighati, to the supreme sacrifice of Panna Dhai who gave up her own son for her loyalty towards the sacred land of Mewar.

The histories of Mewar are loaded with stories of pride, loyalty and indomitable courage. One such contribution which has been continuous and enormous, from the beginning to the present day has been that of the Vanputras who have aided the Maharanas in many battles against the Mughals and have resisted independently against the encroachment and oppression of the British.

The land of Mewar is known as ‘Medapat’ in ancient Sanskrit inscriptions and manuscripts due to the presence of a ‘Meda’ community which used to inhabit this region in ancient times.[1] The region of Mewar comprises the present-day districts of Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Pratapgarh, Rajsamand, Bhilwara, Banswara etc. A number of forest communities inhabit the dense foothills of the Aravallis and act as the proud guards of Mewar. The most prominent tribes of Mewar include Bhils (link of Bhil Tribe Article) , Meenas (link of Meena Tribe Article) and Garasias out of which Bhils stand out in terms of their unparalleled contribution and bravery.

Uncanny Facts about the Bhils and the Guhas

Though the early histories of the Bhils and the Rajputs of Mewar are covered in some uncertainties due to the lack of availability of and research on inscriptions and pedigrees, it can be concluded that before the consolidation of the Guhilot dynasty, it was the Bhils who ruled large parts of this region. Col. James Tod, in his extensive classic, ‘Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan’ traces the origin of Guha or Guhil, the ancestor of the Guhilot dynasty to Valabhi in Gujarat. He tells the story of young Guha growing up amidst the Bhils after his mother Pushpavati committed Jauhar as her husband Sheeladitya, the ruler of Valabhi, died fighting while defending Valabhi against enemies.

The Bhils were impressed by his war-like skills and kept him in their protection as the Bhil chief Mandalika ruled Idar. Guha was declared the next leader of the Bhils when one of the boys cut his finger and applied the tika of sovereignty using his blood on Guha’s forehead. Guha then killed his benefactor to achieve the throne. Tod then draws the story further when he mentions the killing of the Kshatriya king Nagaditya at the hands of the Bhils and the recapture of Idar. The son of Nagaditya, who came to be known as Bappa Rawal was again raised by Bhils and two Bheels: Baldeo from Undri and Dewa from Oguna Panora performed the tika ceremony for Bappa Rawal using their blood.[2]

Mahakavi Shyamaldas who wrote the authentic magnum opus, Veer Vinod and G. S. Ojha who wrote his two-volume book, ‘Udaipur Rajya ka itihaas’, dismiss these claims by Tod as mere concocted stories or folklore which might not have a basis in historical evidence. Ojha argues that these stories of Tod are affected by historical inaccuracies and could have been based on Jain texts whose historicity is uncertain.  While Ojha refutes the claim of Valabhi, Veer Vinod agrees with Tod over the argument of Valabhi and argues that the origins of the Guhil dynasty could be traced back to Anandpur in Gujarat, based on a study of inscriptions.[3] Both Veer Vinod and G.S. Ojha agree on the fact that it is possible that Guha had a large kingdom stretching up to Agra as a large number of coins with ‘Sri Guhil’ inscribed on them have been unearthed from Agra.

Maharana Hammir Singh, Founder of the Guhilot Dynasty
Source: History Flame

On the basis of this, Ojha concludes that if Guhil was a ruler of such a large territory and had coins issued in his name, then it was quite impossible for him to have started from the humble origins mentioned in the Tod story. Moreover, Tod mistakenly calls Nagaditya the father of Bappa Rawal which goes contrary to historical evidence around the same. Besides this, the uncanny similarities in the two stories of Guha and Bappa Rawal presented by Tod also cast a shadow of a doubt.

That being said, the benefit of the doubt remains that the coins belonged to some other descendant of Guha with the same family name because both Veer Vinod and Ojha admit that the script found on the coins perhaps, did not belong to the time period of Guha. Moreover, this cannot be denied that there indeed was some close relationship between the early Guhilots and the Bhils due to many reasons.

Origin of the Bhil Community

Many branches of the Bhils trace their origins to the Sisodia Rajputs and claim Suryavanshi descent. Some believe that they retired to the forests due to invasions of the mlecchas (People of foreign extraction in ancient India) or the constant infighting with other Kshatriya kings, some say that they attained the status of Bhils because they committed the sin of eating beef and others claim that they were Rajputs who married into the Bhil community. All these beliefs point to an exciting inference, that in the early days, there was a very close relationship of intermingling and interaction between the two communities and community barriers were relatively fluid. We could also infer that intermarriage could have been commonplace. Before the coming of Islam, caste identities and community barriers in Indian society were less rigid and more flexible. Another marker of similarity is the belief in faith and worship between the two.

The house of Mewar is believed to be ruled by Eklingji, a variant of Shiva and the Maharana is said to be ruling on the behalf of the deity as his Diwan. The Bhils too have origin myths associated with Shiva and till today strongly believe in a Shaiva tradition. The story presented by Tod could have been historically inaccurate but it may not be absolutely deprived of truth. This is clear through the tradition which is so revered in the House of Mewar in which the successor to the Maharana of Mewar does not assume the title of Maharana unless a Bhil chieftain puts a tilak on his head with his own blood.[4] In this respect, the story of either Guha or Bappa Rawal’s childhood presented by Tod assumes some legitimacy.

Click here to know more about the Bhil Community.

[2] 1 Col. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan 180-181 (Rupa Publications India 1997)

[3] 1 Mahakavi Shyamaldas, Veer Vinod248 (Maharana Mewar Historical Publication Trust Udaipur 2017)

[4]Eternal Mewar, http://www.eternalmewar.in/ (last visited Jan 23, 2021)

 

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History and Culture

Guni’s- The Ethnic Healing Hands of Mewar

Forest dwellers all over the world have had their own classified lifestyles. Be its settlement patterns, food preparation, architecture, community beliefs and even medicine and disease management. The forest dwellers of Mewar too, have had their own methods to treat and manage various diseases with the help of their plethora of knowledge about herbs. The members of the forest communities see this knowledge as the most reliable and something that they inherit from their ancestors. They believe in forests and their products to be the cure for almost all ailments.

With India having dedicated literature of Ayurveda, which accepts and preaches about nature being the solution to all physical inconveniences, it’s no surprise that forest people have had an efficient disease control structure. The traditional medicine system of the forest people runs parallel to Ayurvedic tradition as parts of the plant or tree such as the trunk, leaves, flowers, gum, etc. are used in some or the other way in terms of direct application to oral consumption for the purpose.

The spices prepared by drying the fruits, leaves, trunk skin etc. have been considered most powerful in case of some specific illnesses. The forest people who are engaged in medicinal talent in Rajasthan are called “Guni” meaning, ‘meritorious’. The etymology is based on the Hindi word “Gun” meaning excellence. These communities have acquired the reliance of people for treating them over the course of many years. The discovery of the role of plants in treating human ailments cannot be marked by a specific date in history but oral history tells us that plant-based medicinal practices have been carried out since ancient times.

Gunis and Plant-Based Herbal Healing

The usage of herbs by the forest people must have been accidental and the result of curious exploration. The “mantra uccharan”, bathing in holy water bodies, temple visits and contact of the patient’s body to the statue of god and goddesses, offering sacrifices to deities, feeding young girls and cows etc. was also accompanied by the oral and applicative use of herbs. It has been seen worldwide that traditional knowledge of herbs has been passed on through oral history.

As we were researching, it was seen that very little has been recorded in the literature and efforts are being made constantly in the direction to have more and more written evidence. It has been realized that it is extremely important to conserve this traditional practice as this aspect of the forest dwellers of Mewar needs preservation. The rural and forested areas of Mewar are well known and accessible even by the urban population, through oral communication, despite having access to modern medical facilities. Herbal medicines are yet to gain prevalence again. Known by various names, the classification lies where Vaidyas are the clan of healers belonging to the Brahmin community and follow precise Ayurveda whereas Gunis are a group of forest healers with their own methods.

Where Ayurveda is a more celebrated and developed herbal approach in India, the use of herbs is a continuous hereditary tradition in tribal communities. There is no certification or verification for the herbal healers from forest people and their services are limited to a particular region and community. Gunis have been termed exceptionally learned when it comes to plant-based healing as they are well aware of each and every part of the plant and its use to heal various ailments.

There is also no gender discrimination observed within the healer tribes as female Gunis have earned equal respect as the male ones. Herbs and their by-products are deeply rooted in their lifestyle and culture and only that seems to matter when it comes to curing an ailment. The concoctions, syrups, powder and tablets made from the leaves, flowers, bark, oil, fruit pulp, seeds, etc. extracted from the various plants such as chirmi, gunja, roheda, Sangwan, Haldi, Amarbel, Babool, Kali Musli, Datura, Morpankhi, Giloy, Ashwagandha, Rinjani, Khair, Kulthi, etc. have been used to successfully treat ailments like asthma, arthritis, infertility, gonorrhoea, syphilis, tuberculosis fever, malaria, cough, snake bite, herpes, eczema, kidney stone, external tumour, dysentery, epilepsy, piles, rheumatism etc. Nature for the forest people of Mewar is not just a resource, but an important part of life. They worship nature as a deity and have it positioned as something extremely sacred.

NGOs such as Jagaran Jan Vikas Samiti based in Udaipur, Rajasthan work in the favor of strengthening the institutional presence of Gunis. The data from the latest meet of the Samiti shows that Gunis do not believe in inter-community/ tribal discrimination as a member of various tribes such as Rawat, Kathodis, Gameti, Garasia etc. attended the meet to share their vows and experiences around herbs.

These Mewar forest dwellers made a significant contribution to that tale of bravery. They have continued to serve as the Aravalli’s watchmen and the top-tier Dharmarakshaks. They have guarded Bharat and Mewar against all threats. The Rana Punja Award is given by the Maharana Mewar Foundation to recognise individuals of tribal descent who have made outstanding contributions. In particular, as we commemorate the Amrit Kaal of independence, it is the genuine endeavour of this article series to bring to light the unending contributions of the Mewar forest people in the service of “Eternal Mewar” and the eternal civilization that is Bharat.

 

 

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History and Culture

All About the Bhil Community of Mewar

Bhils and the Origin of Medieval Mewar (Bhilwara, Banswara)

The history of Mewar cannot be written without elaborating on the contribution of the Bhils. Bhils constitute one of the largest tribes in India and are found in the regions of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh. The Bhils are a proud community of the Aravallis and hold an extremely respectable position in Mewar. The Coat of Arms of the House of Mewar comprises the Rajput on one side and the Bhil warrior on the other, together guarding the territory of Mewar. This signifies that it is the Bhils and the Rajputs together who have defended Mewar jointly against all attacks and dangers. The Bhils hold a position of high regard and over the years, have exemplified the motto of Mewar: “Jo Dridh rakkhe dharmko, tahhi rakkhe kartaar”; meaning: God protects he who defends Dharma.[1]

The contribution of the Bhils in the history of Mewar and its defence against invaders appears historically certain and backed by authentic evidence. As quoted by Mahendra Singh Bhanawat, the ruler of Abu around 1190 CE was Jetsi Bhil who lost his throne to king Bheemdev II of Gujarat. The descendants of Jetsi claim to be of Parmar descent. According to Shyamaldas, Dungarpur was established by Dungariya Bhil and Kota was established by Kotia Bhil. These rulers lost in battles to different kings of other states of Rajputana.[2] It is possible that they retired to the forests after these defeats.

The idea of a forest dweller is also a pretty tricky idea because those were the days when large parts of the land were forested areas and the chasm between the forest and the nagara/gram was not very sharp. The region of Bhilwara which is now an urban industrial centre was once a forested region with a large population of Bhils as is clearly evident from the name of the city. The mention of Vishna Bhil as the founder of Banswara is also commonplace. The royal insignia of the state of Kushalgarh also contains a Bhil warrior on one side and a Rajput on the other. The Bhils of Mewar resided mainly in deep forests of the mountain ranges around the region and agriculture, poultry, hunting, and wood carpentry are a part of their lifestyle. Their life is based on herbs and plants for physical well-being and existence.

Rana Punja- The Bhil Chieftain

 

Source: shunyakal.com

Perhaps the most iconic and popular Bhil figure in the history of Mewar is the Bhil chieftain Rana Punja who fought alongside the great warrior king Maharana Pratap in the battle of Haldi Ghati in 1576. Punja was awarded the title of ‘Rana’ in respect of his bravery and sacrifice. ‘Rana’ is the title which is used by the king of Mewar himself. This depicts that the king of Mewar held the Bhils and their contribution in extremely high regard.  After the battle of Haldighati was over and the Mughals were unable to capture Pratap, Man Singh, the Senapati of the Mughal army and other Mughal warriors camped at Gogunda to try their last attempt at capturing Pratap. With the help of Bhil and Rajput warriors, the army of Maharana surrounded the encampment of the Mughal army and cut off their supplies of food and armament and made them crippled for almost four months. Tired and famished, fighting the Rajputs on the way, the Mughal army somehow reached Ajmer where Akbar was then staying. Defeated and frustrated, Akbar sent a number of military campaigns but the Maharana pursued the tactic of guerrilla warfare in the thickets of Aravallis with the constant support of the Bhils and succeeded in decimating the Mughal army units multiple times.[3]Finally in 1582, on the auspicious day of Vijaydashmi, Pratap defeated the Mughal forces in the battle of Dewair where the Maharana permanently closed 36 Mughal outposts in Mewar and ultimately recaptured the whole of Mewar except Chittor, Ajmer and Mandalgarh.[4]Tod writes another anecdote of Pratap’s days in the forest when his family was saved by the Bhils who carried his young children in baskets, hid them in the mines of Zawar, and guarded and fed them.

In 1661, the Rajputs defeated Emperor Aurangzeb with the help of Bhils. In 1767, Ahilyabai of Malwa began to oppress the Bhils but it could not last long in the face of the constant resistance of the Bhils. In the eighteenth century, Marathas and Pindaris constantly attacked Mewar and the Bhils stood hand in hand with the Maharanas to fight them and defeat them on several occasions. The Marathas and Pindaris wreaked havoc on the Bhil population and tortured them in many ways. The period of 1805 to 1817 saw a period of the constant struggle between the Bhils and the Marathas.

Contribution Of Bhils In Freedom Struggle Against The British

Source: My India My Glory

A golden era in the history of the Bhils is seen in their independence struggle against the British when they became immortal names in the Indian freedom struggle. The ruthless attacks of the Marathas and the Pindaris had impoverished the Bhils and they then resorted to robbing and plundering to fulfil their basic needs. This was also a period of deterioration of Rajput-Bhil relations. The contemporary Maharanas had entered into a treaty with the British and lacked the courage, determination and perseverance of the likes of Sanga, Pratap, Kumbha and Amar Singh. The British officials pursued a cruel policy against the Bhils and treated them as criminals. The Rajputs remained complacent and distanced themselves from the Bhils as they considered themselves to be superior to them, having forgotten the glorious past of Bhil loyalty and Rajput-Bhil companionship. The Bhils, still fearless and proud, were left to fend for themselves. The acts of loot and plunder carried out by the Bhils continued to irk the authorities. James Tod, as the British agent in Mewar advised the Maharanas to employ British troops against the Bhils.

The British then employed the Bhils in the British army as a separate regiment called the Mewar Bhil Corps in 1841. The British Agents in Mewar tried to criminalize the traditional practices of the Bhils and often put pressure on them to pay revenues to the state which was strongly resisted by Bhil chiefs. The Mewar government increased taxes and imposed new levies and on the advice of the then British Agent imposed restrictions on the illegal levies that the Bhils chiefs had started collecting. They were also prevented from cutting grass, cutting wood, distilling liquor from Mahua leaves and accessing other forest produce. The British monopoly on salt and opium increased the prices of these commodities. These actions worsened the economic conditions of the Bhils. Extension of civil and criminal jurisprudence to Bhil regions amounted to interference in the internal autonomy of the Bhils. The British effectively used the Bhil corps to suppress Indian resistance movements like those of Tantya Tope. However, two Bhil gametis joined Tantya Tope.[5]

Continuous exploitation, worsening economic situation and cultural and political interference of the British and the indifference of the Maharana to their cause finally erupted in the Bhil revolt of 1881. The immediate cause of this revolt was twofold: 1. the census operations of 1881  2. The killing of a Gameti of Padona by a thanedar of Barapal. The real causes, however, lay in the aforementioned discriminatory policies and the oppressive attitude of the authorities towards the Bhils which reeked of apathy and superiority complex. The Bhils of Mewar in 1881, thus rose in revolt which was seen as a threat. The Maharana acted swiftly perhaps in a manner of condoning his past mistakes which had been committed at the advice of the British. He accepted 21 demands of the Bhils at Rekhabdeo and prevented the intervention of the British which could have resulted in ruthless suppression and a further deterioration of Mughal-Rajput trust. The revolts of the Bhils lacked coordination but some effective leadership was provided by Daulat Singh.

Govind Guru- The Reformer of Bhil Community

In the early twentieth century, there emerged a social reformer and leader of the Bhils in southern Rajasthan. His name was Govind Guru, a religious leader who called upon the Bhils to proudly assert their traditions and fought against bonded labour but also worked towards eliminating social ills within the Bhil community such as non-vegetarianism and the prevalence of alcohol consumption. This movement is known in history as the Bhagat Andolan. In 1913, six years before the infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre, the British army killed nearly 1500 unarmed followers of Govind Guru in cold blood at the Mandalgarh Hill at the Rajasthan-Gujarat border. This largely forgotten inhumane massacre is known in history as the Mandalgarh Massacre and is often called the forgotten Jallianwallah Bagh of Rajasthan.

The Bhils were also inspired by Gandhian ideas which found momentum in the 1920s when the Non-Cooperation movement was slowly churning national consciousness. In April 1921, Moti Lal Tejawat, a Jain from Mewar launched a movement of the peasants of Mewar to express their grievances to the Maharana. He demanded a reduction in land revenue and administered the oath of Aiki or unity to the Bhils. This is known in history as the Aiki Movement. Tejawat marched to Udaipur with a charter of his demands with a group of 8000 peasants.

Most of his demands except some were accepted by the Maharana. However, he continued to fight for the rights of Bhils and other tribes and continued his resistance against feudal excesses. Some instances of violent attacks against state officials by Bhils were also reported. The uprisings were met with repression from the British officials who responded with force resulting in open firing in some cases and massacres in places like Valeria. The tribes under Tejawat continued to resist eventually resulting in the arrest of Tejawat by the Mewar Government on the advice of the British. The Aiki Movement was inspired by Gandhian ideals but like many other Gandhi-inspired mass movements, it also developed some violent streaks. The movement invited Congress’ attention to the cause of Bhils and Mahatma Gandhi himself praised Tejawat’s leadership. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel presided over the annual conference of Bhils at Jhadol in 1927. In this way, the Bhils and other tribes like Garasias contributed towards the Indian independence movement and must be celebrated proudly as freedom fighters.[6]  As we celebrate the Amrit Kaal of independence, it is very important that we remember and celebrate the Bhils who laid down their lives for freedom.

 

[1] Eternal Mewar, http://www.eternalmewar.in/ (last visited Jan 23, 2021)

[2]Lalit Latta, Bhil Janjati: Pehchan evam vikas 49-51

[3] 1 Gauri Shankar Ojha, Udaipur Rajyakaitihaas 443-445 (RajasthaniGranthgaar 2006)

[4]Raj RAS, https://www.rajras.in/1582-battle-of-dewair/ (last visited Jan 23, 2021)

[5] Dr. L. P. Mathur, Tribal Revolts in India under the British Raj 112-117 (Nehru Publishers and Distributors 2004)

[6] Ibid

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Places to Visit

Best Cycling Spots in Udaipur

Everyone knows Udaipur is renowned for its unmatched beauty and vibrant culture. While being in this city you might have numerous experiences which you surely won’t forget.

And a Cycle Tour is one of them! It is the ideal combination of adventure and culture. It captivates you with the city’s rich beauty and simplicity.

The rides here are exciting yet serene, most with the view of lushly green Aravali range on the other side. Here are some cycling spot suggestions for you to enjoy!

Fateh Sagar lake

fateh sagar
Source : tripoto

Fateh Sagar lake is considered to be the heart of the city. And hence it has the most beautiful sunrise and sunset sceneries. Additionally it’s the best and most accessible spot for cycling. Preferably mornings are perfect to go on a ride because evenings are a bit rushy here. You can easily rent a bicycle here with very affordable charges.

Dudh Talai

dudh talai
Source : tripadvisor

On the Dudh Talai path, cycling is at its best with a whimsical view of Aravali hills and palaces built in the lake. There’s a way which is covered with immense greenery. You can go a long ride through that road covered up with foliage all the way round.

Badi Lake

cycling on badi lake
Source: travelindiadestinations

The Badi lake is situated away from the city rush. You must stop at this breathtaking location. You won’t be let down because this is a mesmerizing site. A perfect combination of hills on one side and a lake on the other allows you to have a memorable cycling experience here.

Rani Road

rani road
Source : tripadvisor

To have a completely bewildering getaway you shouldn’t miss cycling by Rani road. It is literally overwhelming to be here as it has the most prestigious views and lake by the other side. It would be undeniable to say it’s one of the go-to cycling spots for most of the locals and tourists.

 Udaipur Countryside

udaipur cycling
Source: thrillophilia

As we are all aware, villages are the first thing that come to mind when seeking peace. The countryside is undoubtedly the best cure for that and you can enjoy connecting with rural people and lifestyle. Then it’s possible that you’d like to go biking there. You can travel the entire way through the countryside near Badi starting from Shilpgram. You won’t be disappointed, we bet.

It is guaranteed that cycling in Udaipur would be one of your best mild escapades. There are even bike ride packages available and offered at various sites and agencies. You can book your rides from there. Else you can rent a bike and could go to these astounding sites on your own.