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History and Culture

Meena Community of Mewar

History of Meena Community

The information about the Meena tribe was extensively documented by British historians and anthropologists during the colonial period. Some of them are Colonel Tod, Crooke, and Russell. It is said that the data given by the above officials have been manipulated up to some extent. Hence it was observed that most of the facts and knowledge about this tribe were blurred out. Meenas during the British rule were classified as a criminal tribe under the Criminal Tribes Act: a notorious colonial law which listed certain forest communities as ‘criminal by birth’. Post- independence this tribe was moved to the “denotified list” from the criminal list and thus a path of growth was laid out for them. There have been numerous speculations around the origin of the Meena tribe. Although there is no proof of the etymology of the tribe but it is believed to come from the word “meen” which means a fish but consuming fish is taboo and hence this is not a reliable discovery.

There have been no efforts made to know the history of the Meena tribe event by event. It is important to know that the Meena tribe was first mentioned in 500 BC.  History claims that almost 18 km far from Udaipur city flowed the Maural river. On the banks of this river developed a city called Mauran. The citizens of this city are known as Maureja or Maureda. Some others trace the term Meena to the Mauryan empire and argue that Meenas were the citizens of the Mauryan Empire and that is why even today they are known under Maureja or Maureda. There is no written historical account about the Meena tribe hence most that is known is based on oral history.

 

The Meena tribe’s history can be traced back to events that occurred in the 12th century. When writing on the Rajput states, Colonel Tod made reference to the Meena tribe. He wrote an interesting story about the origin of Meena or them coming to light. He mentioned that the state of Narmer was ruled by a Meena. When prince Sor Singh of Narmer died, his brother acquired the state illegitimately. The actual successor of the throne, that is the son of Sor Singh, was still an infant. His name was Dhola Rai. The mother of Dhola Rai was extremely upset about the unfair treatment done to his son. One day she left the city of Narmer dressed as a man with Dhola Rai in a basket. She reached Khorgoj (Jaipur) which was the home of the Meena tribe. The tired mother started plucking and eating berries from the wild. As she turned back to her son, she saw a large snake. The scared mother started yelling for help. A brahmin was passing by and comforted her saying that it was a good omen. “That the boy will achieve great things in life,” he said. And eventually, as Dhola Rai grew up he was able to acquire his father’s land back with the help of the neighbouring states.

Socio-Cultural Association of The Meena Community

As far as the settlement pattern of the Meena Community is concerned, the smallest unit is known as Dhani.  Dhani consists of the houses of the members of the villages. They are a patriarchal society. The members believe in the origin of one known ancestor. The ancestor is considered as the founder of the Dhani. The collective front of these Dhanis makes a Meena village. The Dhani-based villages of the Meena community are found in Jaipur.

However, the villages of the Meena tribes in Sawai Madhopur and Udaipur do not cover the Dhani system. What Meenas call Dhani, Bheels call “fala”. The families living in Dhani are brothers and sisters. Hence, marital relations cannot be made. Generally, a non-Meena does not reside in a Meena-Dhani. The range of the houses in a Dhani is from 2 to 20 houses.

The lifestyle of the Meena Community

Meena communities live in a compact village. Their settlement pattern is not the same as the scattered villages of Bhils. They generally prefer to live near their cultivation land, thus resulting in compact settlements. The architecture of the houses of the Meena tribe is according to the hot weather of southern Rajasthan, the walls are made of soil and the roof is flat. Partition within the house is also made by the walls out of the soil and the structure has one entrance. The stock of grains and all the random commodities are placed in the living room itself. There is this open space outside the house where men spend most of their time and the women of the house live inside the structure. Along with the cultivation of food grains the community is also involved in poultry and animal husbandry.

The saga of the forest people of Mewar is an unspoken chapter in history books. The region of Mewar is teeming with stories of heroism, sacrifice, cultural richness and above all, the supreme love for the motherland. The contribution of the forest dwellers of Mewar in that story of bravery is no less. They have remained the watchmen of the Aravalli and the Dharmarakshaks of the highest order. They have protected Bharat and Mewar against all dangers. The Maharana Mewar Foundation gives an award in the name of Rana Punja to honour the exemplary contributions of persons of tribal origin. It is the sincere attempt of this article series to bring to light, the endless contributions of the Mewar forest people in the service of ‘Eternal Mewar’ and the timeless civilization that is Bharat, especially as we celebrate the Amrit Kaal of independence.

Vande Mataram! Jai Mewar!

 

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History and Culture

The Dharmarakshaks and The History Of Mewar

The land of Mewar boasts of glorious history, culture and traditions that have survived the test of time. The story of Mewar is a brilliant saga of the survival of ‘Swadharma’ and ‘Swabhiman’ against all kinds of attacks and invasions. The valiant Sisodia Rajputs who trace their ancestry to the Surya Devata or the Sun God have fought against all attacks throughout history and remained one of the very few princely states that constantly resisted the supremacy of the rulers of Delhi during the medieval period.

Sisodiya Dynasty of Mewar
Source: RajRAS

It is interesting to note, however, that it was not just the Rajput rulers who resisted attacks and fought valiantly. It was a host of other brave men and women who fought and made sacrifices to protect the honour and sovereignty of Mewar state. But for their wholehearted collective efforts, the kings might have fallen short in their sacred duty of defence of Mewar.

From the generosity of Bhamashah who provided Maharana Pratap with the resources of wealth to fight battles and the Afghan chiefs like Hakim Khan Suri who laid down their lives in Haldighati, to the supreme sacrifice of Panna Dhai who gave up her own son for her loyalty towards the sacred land of Mewar.

The histories of Mewar are loaded with stories of pride, loyalty and indomitable courage. One such contribution which has been continuous and enormous, from the beginning to the present day has been that of the Vanputras who have aided the Maharanas in many battles against the Mughals and have resisted independently against the encroachment and oppression of the British.

The land of Mewar is known as ‘Medapat’ in ancient Sanskrit inscriptions and manuscripts due to the presence of a ‘Meda’ community which used to inhabit this region in ancient times.[1] The region of Mewar comprises the present-day districts of Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Pratapgarh, Rajsamand, Bhilwara, Banswara etc. A number of forest communities inhabit the dense foothills of the Aravallis and act as the proud guards of Mewar. The most prominent tribes of Mewar include Bhils (link of Bhil Tribe Article) , Meenas (link of Meena Tribe Article) and Garasias out of which Bhils stand out in terms of their unparalleled contribution and bravery.

Uncanny Facts about the Bhils and the Guhas

Though the early histories of the Bhils and the Rajputs of Mewar are covered in some uncertainties due to the lack of availability of and research on inscriptions and pedigrees, it can be concluded that before the consolidation of the Guhilot dynasty, it was the Bhils who ruled large parts of this region. Col. James Tod, in his extensive classic, ‘Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan’ traces the origin of Guha or Guhil, the ancestor of the Guhilot dynasty to Valabhi in Gujarat. He tells the story of young Guha growing up amidst the Bhils after his mother Pushpavati committed Jauhar as her husband Sheeladitya, the ruler of Valabhi, died fighting while defending Valabhi against enemies.

The Bhils were impressed by his war-like skills and kept him in their protection as the Bhil chief Mandalika ruled Idar. Guha was declared the next leader of the Bhils when one of the boys cut his finger and applied the tika of sovereignty using his blood on Guha’s forehead. Guha then killed his benefactor to achieve the throne. Tod then draws the story further when he mentions the killing of the Kshatriya king Nagaditya at the hands of the Bhils and the recapture of Idar. The son of Nagaditya, who came to be known as Bappa Rawal was again raised by Bhils and two Bheels: Baldeo from Undri and Dewa from Oguna Panora performed the tika ceremony for Bappa Rawal using their blood.[2]

Mahakavi Shyamaldas who wrote the authentic magnum opus, Veer Vinod and G. S. Ojha who wrote his two-volume book, ‘Udaipur Rajya ka itihaas’, dismiss these claims by Tod as mere concocted stories or folklore which might not have a basis in historical evidence. Ojha argues that these stories of Tod are affected by historical inaccuracies and could have been based on Jain texts whose historicity is uncertain.  While Ojha refutes the claim of Valabhi, Veer Vinod agrees with Tod over the argument of Valabhi and argues that the origins of the Guhil dynasty could be traced back to Anandpur in Gujarat, based on a study of inscriptions.[3] Both Veer Vinod and G.S. Ojha agree on the fact that it is possible that Guha had a large kingdom stretching up to Agra as a large number of coins with ‘Sri Guhil’ inscribed on them have been unearthed from Agra.

Maharana Hammir Singh, Founder of the Guhilot Dynasty
Source: History Flame

On the basis of this, Ojha concludes that if Guhil was a ruler of such a large territory and had coins issued in his name, then it was quite impossible for him to have started from the humble origins mentioned in the Tod story. Moreover, Tod mistakenly calls Nagaditya the father of Bappa Rawal which goes contrary to historical evidence around the same. Besides this, the uncanny similarities in the two stories of Guha and Bappa Rawal presented by Tod also cast a shadow of a doubt.

That being said, the benefit of the doubt remains that the coins belonged to some other descendant of Guha with the same family name because both Veer Vinod and Ojha admit that the script found on the coins perhaps, did not belong to the time period of Guha. Moreover, this cannot be denied that there indeed was some close relationship between the early Guhilots and the Bhils due to many reasons.

Origin of the Bhil Community

Many branches of the Bhils trace their origins to the Sisodia Rajputs and claim Suryavanshi descent. Some believe that they retired to the forests due to invasions of the mlecchas (People of foreign extraction in ancient India) or the constant infighting with other Kshatriya kings, some say that they attained the status of Bhils because they committed the sin of eating beef and others claim that they were Rajputs who married into the Bhil community. All these beliefs point to an exciting inference, that in the early days, there was a very close relationship of intermingling and interaction between the two communities and community barriers were relatively fluid. We could also infer that intermarriage could have been commonplace. Before the coming of Islam, caste identities and community barriers in Indian society were less rigid and more flexible. Another marker of similarity is the belief in faith and worship between the two.

The house of Mewar is believed to be ruled by Eklingji, a variant of Shiva and the Maharana is said to be ruling on the behalf of the deity as his Diwan. The Bhils too have origin myths associated with Shiva and till today strongly believe in a Shaiva tradition. The story presented by Tod could have been historically inaccurate but it may not be absolutely deprived of truth. This is clear through the tradition which is so revered in the House of Mewar in which the successor to the Maharana of Mewar does not assume the title of Maharana unless a Bhil chieftain puts a tilak on his head with his own blood.[4] In this respect, the story of either Guha or Bappa Rawal’s childhood presented by Tod assumes some legitimacy.

Click here to know more about the Bhil Community.

[2] 1 Col. James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan 180-181 (Rupa Publications India 1997)

[3] 1 Mahakavi Shyamaldas, Veer Vinod248 (Maharana Mewar Historical Publication Trust Udaipur 2017)

[4]Eternal Mewar, http://www.eternalmewar.in/ (last visited Jan 23, 2021)

 

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History and Culture

Guni’s- The Ethnic Healing Hands of Mewar

Forest dwellers all over the world have had their own classified lifestyles. Be its settlement patterns, food preparation, architecture, community beliefs and even medicine and disease management. The forest dwellers of Mewar too, have had their own methods to treat and manage various diseases with the help of their plethora of knowledge about herbs. The members of the forest communities see this knowledge as the most reliable and something that they inherit from their ancestors. They believe in forests and their products to be the cure for almost all ailments.

With India having dedicated literature of Ayurveda, which accepts and preaches about nature being the solution to all physical inconveniences, it’s no surprise that forest people have had an efficient disease control structure. The traditional medicine system of the forest people runs parallel to Ayurvedic tradition as parts of the plant or tree such as the trunk, leaves, flowers, gum, etc. are used in some or the other way in terms of direct application to oral consumption for the purpose.

The spices prepared by drying the fruits, leaves, trunk skin etc. have been considered most powerful in case of some specific illnesses. The forest people who are engaged in medicinal talent in Rajasthan are called “Guni” meaning, ‘meritorious’. The etymology is based on the Hindi word “Gun” meaning excellence. These communities have acquired the reliance of people for treating them over the course of many years. The discovery of the role of plants in treating human ailments cannot be marked by a specific date in history but oral history tells us that plant-based medicinal practices have been carried out since ancient times.

Gunis and Plant-Based Herbal Healing

The usage of herbs by the forest people must have been accidental and the result of curious exploration. The “mantra uccharan”, bathing in holy water bodies, temple visits and contact of the patient’s body to the statue of god and goddesses, offering sacrifices to deities, feeding young girls and cows etc. was also accompanied by the oral and applicative use of herbs. It has been seen worldwide that traditional knowledge of herbs has been passed on through oral history.

As we were researching, it was seen that very little has been recorded in the literature and efforts are being made constantly in the direction to have more and more written evidence. It has been realized that it is extremely important to conserve this traditional practice as this aspect of the forest dwellers of Mewar needs preservation. The rural and forested areas of Mewar are well known and accessible even by the urban population, through oral communication, despite having access to modern medical facilities. Herbal medicines are yet to gain prevalence again. Known by various names, the classification lies where Vaidyas are the clan of healers belonging to the Brahmin community and follow precise Ayurveda whereas Gunis are a group of forest healers with their own methods.

Where Ayurveda is a more celebrated and developed herbal approach in India, the use of herbs is a continuous hereditary tradition in tribal communities. There is no certification or verification for the herbal healers from forest people and their services are limited to a particular region and community. Gunis have been termed exceptionally learned when it comes to plant-based healing as they are well aware of each and every part of the plant and its use to heal various ailments.

There is also no gender discrimination observed within the healer tribes as female Gunis have earned equal respect as the male ones. Herbs and their by-products are deeply rooted in their lifestyle and culture and only that seems to matter when it comes to curing an ailment. The concoctions, syrups, powder and tablets made from the leaves, flowers, bark, oil, fruit pulp, seeds, etc. extracted from the various plants such as chirmi, gunja, roheda, Sangwan, Haldi, Amarbel, Babool, Kali Musli, Datura, Morpankhi, Giloy, Ashwagandha, Rinjani, Khair, Kulthi, etc. have been used to successfully treat ailments like asthma, arthritis, infertility, gonorrhoea, syphilis, tuberculosis fever, malaria, cough, snake bite, herpes, eczema, kidney stone, external tumour, dysentery, epilepsy, piles, rheumatism etc. Nature for the forest people of Mewar is not just a resource, but an important part of life. They worship nature as a deity and have it positioned as something extremely sacred.

NGOs such as Jagaran Jan Vikas Samiti based in Udaipur, Rajasthan work in the favor of strengthening the institutional presence of Gunis. The data from the latest meet of the Samiti shows that Gunis do not believe in inter-community/ tribal discrimination as a member of various tribes such as Rawat, Kathodis, Gameti, Garasia etc. attended the meet to share their vows and experiences around herbs.

These Mewar forest dwellers made a significant contribution to that tale of bravery. They have continued to serve as the Aravalli’s watchmen and the top-tier Dharmarakshaks. They have guarded Bharat and Mewar against all threats. The Rana Punja Award is given by the Maharana Mewar Foundation to recognise individuals of tribal descent who have made outstanding contributions. In particular, as we commemorate the Amrit Kaal of independence, it is the genuine endeavour of this article series to bring to light the unending contributions of the Mewar forest people in the service of “Eternal Mewar” and the eternal civilization that is Bharat.

 

 

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History and Culture

All About the Bhil Community of Mewar

Bhils and the Origin of Medieval Mewar (Bhilwara, Banswara)

The history of Mewar cannot be written without elaborating on the contribution of the Bhils. Bhils constitute one of the largest tribes in India and are found in the regions of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh. The Bhils are a proud community of the Aravallis and hold an extremely respectable position in Mewar. The Coat of Arms of the House of Mewar comprises the Rajput on one side and the Bhil warrior on the other, together guarding the territory of Mewar. This signifies that it is the Bhils and the Rajputs together who have defended Mewar jointly against all attacks and dangers. The Bhils hold a position of high regard and over the years, have exemplified the motto of Mewar: “Jo Dridh rakkhe dharmko, tahhi rakkhe kartaar”; meaning: God protects he who defends Dharma.[1]

The contribution of the Bhils in the history of Mewar and its defence against invaders appears historically certain and backed by authentic evidence. As quoted by Mahendra Singh Bhanawat, the ruler of Abu around 1190 CE was Jetsi Bhil who lost his throne to king Bheemdev II of Gujarat. The descendants of Jetsi claim to be of Parmar descent. According to Shyamaldas, Dungarpur was established by Dungariya Bhil and Kota was established by Kotia Bhil. These rulers lost in battles to different kings of other states of Rajputana.[2] It is possible that they retired to the forests after these defeats.

The idea of a forest dweller is also a pretty tricky idea because those were the days when large parts of the land were forested areas and the chasm between the forest and the nagara/gram was not very sharp. The region of Bhilwara which is now an urban industrial centre was once a forested region with a large population of Bhils as is clearly evident from the name of the city. The mention of Vishna Bhil as the founder of Banswara is also commonplace. The royal insignia of the state of Kushalgarh also contains a Bhil warrior on one side and a Rajput on the other. The Bhils of Mewar resided mainly in deep forests of the mountain ranges around the region and agriculture, poultry, hunting, and wood carpentry are a part of their lifestyle. Their life is based on herbs and plants for physical well-being and existence.

Rana Punja- The Bhil Chieftain

 

Source: shunyakal.com

Perhaps the most iconic and popular Bhil figure in the history of Mewar is the Bhil chieftain Rana Punja who fought alongside the great warrior king Maharana Pratap in the battle of Haldi Ghati in 1576. Punja was awarded the title of ‘Rana’ in respect of his bravery and sacrifice. ‘Rana’ is the title which is used by the king of Mewar himself. This depicts that the king of Mewar held the Bhils and their contribution in extremely high regard.  After the battle of Haldighati was over and the Mughals were unable to capture Pratap, Man Singh, the Senapati of the Mughal army and other Mughal warriors camped at Gogunda to try their last attempt at capturing Pratap. With the help of Bhil and Rajput warriors, the army of Maharana surrounded the encampment of the Mughal army and cut off their supplies of food and armament and made them crippled for almost four months. Tired and famished, fighting the Rajputs on the way, the Mughal army somehow reached Ajmer where Akbar was then staying. Defeated and frustrated, Akbar sent a number of military campaigns but the Maharana pursued the tactic of guerrilla warfare in the thickets of Aravallis with the constant support of the Bhils and succeeded in decimating the Mughal army units multiple times.[3]Finally in 1582, on the auspicious day of Vijaydashmi, Pratap defeated the Mughal forces in the battle of Dewair where the Maharana permanently closed 36 Mughal outposts in Mewar and ultimately recaptured the whole of Mewar except Chittor, Ajmer and Mandalgarh.[4]Tod writes another anecdote of Pratap’s days in the forest when his family was saved by the Bhils who carried his young children in baskets, hid them in the mines of Zawar, and guarded and fed them.

In 1661, the Rajputs defeated Emperor Aurangzeb with the help of Bhils. In 1767, Ahilyabai of Malwa began to oppress the Bhils but it could not last long in the face of the constant resistance of the Bhils. In the eighteenth century, Marathas and Pindaris constantly attacked Mewar and the Bhils stood hand in hand with the Maharanas to fight them and defeat them on several occasions. The Marathas and Pindaris wreaked havoc on the Bhil population and tortured them in many ways. The period of 1805 to 1817 saw a period of the constant struggle between the Bhils and the Marathas.

Contribution Of Bhils In Freedom Struggle Against The British

Source: My India My Glory

A golden era in the history of the Bhils is seen in their independence struggle against the British when they became immortal names in the Indian freedom struggle. The ruthless attacks of the Marathas and the Pindaris had impoverished the Bhils and they then resorted to robbing and plundering to fulfil their basic needs. This was also a period of deterioration of Rajput-Bhil relations. The contemporary Maharanas had entered into a treaty with the British and lacked the courage, determination and perseverance of the likes of Sanga, Pratap, Kumbha and Amar Singh. The British officials pursued a cruel policy against the Bhils and treated them as criminals. The Rajputs remained complacent and distanced themselves from the Bhils as they considered themselves to be superior to them, having forgotten the glorious past of Bhil loyalty and Rajput-Bhil companionship. The Bhils, still fearless and proud, were left to fend for themselves. The acts of loot and plunder carried out by the Bhils continued to irk the authorities. James Tod, as the British agent in Mewar advised the Maharanas to employ British troops against the Bhils.

The British then employed the Bhils in the British army as a separate regiment called the Mewar Bhil Corps in 1841. The British Agents in Mewar tried to criminalize the traditional practices of the Bhils and often put pressure on them to pay revenues to the state which was strongly resisted by Bhil chiefs. The Mewar government increased taxes and imposed new levies and on the advice of the then British Agent imposed restrictions on the illegal levies that the Bhils chiefs had started collecting. They were also prevented from cutting grass, cutting wood, distilling liquor from Mahua leaves and accessing other forest produce. The British monopoly on salt and opium increased the prices of these commodities. These actions worsened the economic conditions of the Bhils. Extension of civil and criminal jurisprudence to Bhil regions amounted to interference in the internal autonomy of the Bhils. The British effectively used the Bhil corps to suppress Indian resistance movements like those of Tantya Tope. However, two Bhil gametis joined Tantya Tope.[5]

Continuous exploitation, worsening economic situation and cultural and political interference of the British and the indifference of the Maharana to their cause finally erupted in the Bhil revolt of 1881. The immediate cause of this revolt was twofold: 1. the census operations of 1881  2. The killing of a Gameti of Padona by a thanedar of Barapal. The real causes, however, lay in the aforementioned discriminatory policies and the oppressive attitude of the authorities towards the Bhils which reeked of apathy and superiority complex. The Bhils of Mewar in 1881, thus rose in revolt which was seen as a threat. The Maharana acted swiftly perhaps in a manner of condoning his past mistakes which had been committed at the advice of the British. He accepted 21 demands of the Bhils at Rekhabdeo and prevented the intervention of the British which could have resulted in ruthless suppression and a further deterioration of Mughal-Rajput trust. The revolts of the Bhils lacked coordination but some effective leadership was provided by Daulat Singh.

Govind Guru- The Reformer of Bhil Community

In the early twentieth century, there emerged a social reformer and leader of the Bhils in southern Rajasthan. His name was Govind Guru, a religious leader who called upon the Bhils to proudly assert their traditions and fought against bonded labour but also worked towards eliminating social ills within the Bhil community such as non-vegetarianism and the prevalence of alcohol consumption. This movement is known in history as the Bhagat Andolan. In 1913, six years before the infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre, the British army killed nearly 1500 unarmed followers of Govind Guru in cold blood at the Mandalgarh Hill at the Rajasthan-Gujarat border. This largely forgotten inhumane massacre is known in history as the Mandalgarh Massacre and is often called the forgotten Jallianwallah Bagh of Rajasthan.

The Bhils were also inspired by Gandhian ideas which found momentum in the 1920s when the Non-Cooperation movement was slowly churning national consciousness. In April 1921, Moti Lal Tejawat, a Jain from Mewar launched a movement of the peasants of Mewar to express their grievances to the Maharana. He demanded a reduction in land revenue and administered the oath of Aiki or unity to the Bhils. This is known in history as the Aiki Movement. Tejawat marched to Udaipur with a charter of his demands with a group of 8000 peasants.

Most of his demands except some were accepted by the Maharana. However, he continued to fight for the rights of Bhils and other tribes and continued his resistance against feudal excesses. Some instances of violent attacks against state officials by Bhils were also reported. The uprisings were met with repression from the British officials who responded with force resulting in open firing in some cases and massacres in places like Valeria. The tribes under Tejawat continued to resist eventually resulting in the arrest of Tejawat by the Mewar Government on the advice of the British. The Aiki Movement was inspired by Gandhian ideals but like many other Gandhi-inspired mass movements, it also developed some violent streaks. The movement invited Congress’ attention to the cause of Bhils and Mahatma Gandhi himself praised Tejawat’s leadership. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel presided over the annual conference of Bhils at Jhadol in 1927. In this way, the Bhils and other tribes like Garasias contributed towards the Indian independence movement and must be celebrated proudly as freedom fighters.[6]  As we celebrate the Amrit Kaal of independence, it is very important that we remember and celebrate the Bhils who laid down their lives for freedom.

 

[1] Eternal Mewar, http://www.eternalmewar.in/ (last visited Jan 23, 2021)

[2]Lalit Latta, Bhil Janjati: Pehchan evam vikas 49-51

[3] 1 Gauri Shankar Ojha, Udaipur Rajyakaitihaas 443-445 (RajasthaniGranthgaar 2006)

[4]Raj RAS, https://www.rajras.in/1582-battle-of-dewair/ (last visited Jan 23, 2021)

[5] Dr. L. P. Mathur, Tribal Revolts in India under the British Raj 112-117 (Nehru Publishers and Distributors 2004)

[6] Ibid

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प्रायोगिक नवचण्डी यज्ञ फिल्म सी.डी. का लोकार्पण समारोह

साहित्य संस्थान, जनार्दनराय नागर राजस्थान विद्यापीठ (डीम्ड-टू-बी- विश्वविद्यालय), उदयपुर एवं राजस्थान संस्कृत अकादमी, जयपुर के संयुक्तत्वावधान में आयोजित “प्रायोगिक नवचण्डी यज्ञ” फिल्म स्वीकृत प्रकल्प पूर्ण होने पर राजस्थान संस्कृत अकादमी, जयपुर द्वारा आयोजित आजादी के अमृत महात्सव, घर घर तिरंगा अभियान एवं संस्कृत दिवस के उपलक्ष्य में “प्रयोगिक नवचण्डी यज्ञ” फिल्म सी.डी. का लोकार्पण समारोह माननीय डॉ. बी. डी. कल्ला शिक्षा मंत्री, राजस्थान व  श्रीमान पंकज झा, प्रमुख सासन सचिव, सचिवालय जयपुर एवं डॉ. संजय कुमार झाला, निदेशक, राजस्थान संस्कृत अकादमी, जयपुर तथा प्रयोगिक नवचण्डी यज्ञ फिल्म के निर्देशक डॉ. महेश आमेटा द्वारा सीडी का लोकार्पण किया गया।

 

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News

Ban on identified Single Use Plastic Items from 1st July 2022

National and State level control rooms to be set up for checking illegal manufacture, import, stocking, distribution, sale and use of banned single use plastic items

Success of the ban possible only through effective engagement and concerted actions by all stakeholders

Public Participation critical to banning SUPs

Posted On: 28 JUN 2022 1:04PM by PIB Delhi

In line with the clarion call given by Hon’ble Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi, to phase out single use plastic items by 2022, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India notified the Plastic Waste Management Amendment Rules, 2021, on 12 August 2021. Carrying forward the spirit of ‘Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsava’, a defining step to curb pollution caused by littered and unmanaged plastic waste is being taken by the country. India will ban manufacture, import, stocking, distribution, sale and use of identified single use plastic items, which have low utility and high littering potential, all across the country from July 1, 2022.

The adverse impacts of littered single use plastic items plastic on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, including in marine environment are globally recognized. Addressing pollution due to single use plastic items has become an important environmental challenge confronting all countries.

In the 4th United Nations Environment Assembly held in 2019, India had piloted a resolution on addressing single-use plastic products pollution, recognizing the urgent need for the global community to focus on this very important issue. The adoption of this resolution at UNEA 4 was a significant step. In the recently concluded 5th session of United Nations Environment Assembly in March 2022, India engaged constructively with all member states to develop consensus on the resolution for driving global action on plastic pollution.

The Government of India has taken resolute steps for mitigation of pollution caused by littered Single Use Plastics. The list of banned items includes -ear buds with plastic sticks, plastic sticks for balloons, plastic flags, candy sticks, ice- cream sticks, polystyrene (Thermocol) for decoration, plastic plates, cups, glasses, cutlery such as forks, spoons, knives, straw, trays, wrapping or packing films around sweet boxes, invitation cards, cigarette packets, plastic or PVC banners less than 100 micron, stirrers.

The Plastic Waste Management Amendment Rules, 2021, also prohibit manufacture, import, stocking, distribution, sale and use of plastic carry bags having thickness less than seventy five microns with effect from 30th September, 2021, and having thickness less than thickness of one hundred and twenty microns with effect from the 31st December, 2022.

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has also notified the Guidelines on Extended Producers Responsibility on plastic packaging as Plastic Waste Management Amendment Rules, 2022 on 16th February, 2022. Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is responsibility of a producer for the environmentally sound management of the product until the end of its life. The Guidelines will provide framework to strengthen circular economy of plastic packaging waste, promote development of new alternatives to plastic packaging and provide next steps for moving towards sustainable plastic packaging by businesses.

Capacity building workshops are being organized for MSME units to provide them technical assistance for manufacturing of alternatives to banned single use plastic items with the involvement of CPCB/SPCBs/PCCs along with Ministry of Small Micro and Medium Enterprises and Central Institute of Petrochemicals Engineering (CIPET) and their state centres. Provisions have also been made to support such enterprises in transitioning away from banned single use plastics.

The Government of India has also taken steps to promote innovation and provide an ecosystem for accelerated penetration and availability of alternatives all across the country.

For effective enforcement of ban on identified SUP items from 1 July 2022, national and state level control rooms will be set up and special enforcement teams will be formed for checking illegal manufacture, import, stocking, distribution, sale and use of banned single use plastic items. States and Union Territories have been asked to set up border check points to stop inter-state movement of any banned single use plastic items.

CPCB Grievance Redressal App has been launched to empower citizens to help curb plastic menace. For wider public outreach, PRAKRITI – mascot was also launched on 5th April.

The Government has been taking measures for awareness generation towards elimination of single use plastics The awareness campaign has brought together entrepreneurs and startups, industry, Central, State and Local Governments, regulatory bodies, experts, citizens organizations, R& D and academic institutions.

The success of the ban will only be possible through effective engagement and concerted actions by all stakeholders and enthusiastic public participation, believes the Ministry.

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News

उदयपुर अहमदाबाद ब्रॉडगेज लाइन का 90% काम संपंन्न

उदयपुर से अहमदाबाद ब्रॉडगेज लाइन अब 5 कि.मी बिछना बाकी है। यह काम खारवा से जयसमंद के बिच बचा हुआ है। 299 किलोमीटर की यह ट्रैक जब पूरी हो जाएगी तो यह दक्षिण भारत से जुड़ जाएगी। चूँकि इसका 90 % काम पूरा हो चूका है।प्रदेश की दूसरी सबसे बड़ी टनल तक इसकी पटरिया पहुंच चुकी है। दक्षिण भारत से जुड़ने में अब महज 5 किमी का फासला है।

इस ट्रैक पर खारवा से जयसमंद के बिच 36 किमी में जून माह तक रेलवे का सीआरएस यानि निरिक्षण हो सकता है। जून माह तक पुरे रेलवे का निरिक्षण होने पर रेल शुरू होने की उम्मीदे है। इस से पहले हिम्मतनगर से जयसमंद और उदयपुर से खारवा तक का निरिक्षण हो चूका है। खारवा से जयसमंद का काम काफी धीमी गति से चल रहा है।

कई बार इसकी डेडलाइन भी आगे बढ़ चुकी है। इसकी अंतिम डेडलाइन मार्च 2022 के अंत तक पूरी होने की थी। समय पर कार्य पूरा ना होने की वजह से इसका कार्य मई माह तक पहुंच गया है। फ़िलहाल रेलवे के अधिकारी जून के पहले सप्ताह तक कार्य पूर्ण होने की सम्भावना बता रहे है।
इस ट्रैक का कार्य हो जाने पर यह उदयपुर से गुजरात,महाराष्ट्र,गोवा,कर्नाटकइन सभी के रास्ते सीधे दक्षिण भारत से जुड़ जाएंगे। उदयपुर से अहमदाबाद के लिए रोज इंटरसिटी ट्रैन चलेगी।

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Featured

पर्यावरण को बचाने का एक अनोखा प्रयास है “वर्टीकल गार्डन”

भीलवाड़ा शहर में एक कॉलोनी ऐसी है जहाँ इतने पेड़ -पौधे लगाए गए है की सडको के अलावा खाली जमीन नहीं बची। पर्यावरण के प्रति जागरूक यहाँ के लोग अब “वर्टीकल गार्डन” विकसित कर रहे है। इसकी शुरुआत लोगो ने अपने मकानों की चारदीवारों से ही की है। उसके बाद 20 फिट ऊँचे गेट को भी उद्यान की शक्ल दे दी है। गेट की ऊंचाई पर तीन सो से ज्यादा गमले लगाए गए है।
हरनी महादेव रोड स्थित कुमुदविहार की पहचान अब “ग्रीन कॉलोनी” के रूप में होने लगी है।
इतने पेड़ लगाए जाने पर एक टीम द्वारा चेक किया तो कॉलोनी के बाहर का पारा 42.7 डिग्री और कॉलोनी के अंदर का तापमान 38 डिग्री था।

जानिए क्या है वर्टीकल गार्डन –

यह नई शैली का एक बगीचा है,जिसे दीवारों पर लंबवत रूप में बनाया जाता है। यह न केवल आपके घर के आकर्षक का केंद्र है बल्कि पर्यायवरण के लिए प्राकृतिक शुद्ध हवा भी प्रदान करता है। यह ना सिर्फ आपके घर को अधिक खूबसूरत बनाते हैं, बल्कि घर के भीतर की हवा को नेचुरली प्यूरिफाई भी करते हैं।
वर्टिकल गार्डन एक ऐसी तकनीक है जिसका उपयोग लंबे समय तक वर्टिकल पैनल पर पौधों को उगाने के लिए किया जाता है। वर्टिकल गार्डन घर को तरोताजा और हवा को शुद्ध करने के साथ-साथ आवश्यक पोषण भी प्रदान करते है।गर्मियों में, आउटडोर वर्टिकल गार्डन एक ऐसी प्रक्रिया का उपयोग करते हैं जिसे वाष्पीकरण कहा जाता है, जो अपने चारों ओर हवा को ठंडा करने में मदद करता है।कई इमारतों में उनके बाहरी हिस्सों पर वर्टिकल गार्डन बनाने से इमारतों के तापमान में उतार-चढ़ाव, यूवी विकिरण, भारी बारिश से सुरक्षा और इन्सुलेशन प्रदान करते हैं

अब तक तो यह शुरुआत सिर्फ भीलवाड़ा ने ही की है, आगे दुनिया भर में इसकी शुरुआत करके हर शहर अपने शहर को ” ग्रीन शहर” के रूप में बना सकता है। हर कॉलोनी अपनी कॉलोनी को “ग्रीन कॉलोनी ” बना सकती है। हर घर में अगर इस प्रकार की शुरआत हो गई तो ये हमे गर्मियो से तो राहत देगा ही साथ ही साथ पर्यावरण को लेकर एक अनूठा प्रयास भी होगा।

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Social

महेन्द्रा ने जीता पेसिफिक प्रीमियर लीग चौथे सीजन का खिताब

उदयपुर। झीलों की नगरी उदयपुर में चल रहा टी-20 क्रिकेट का रोमांच बुधवार को समारोहपूर्वक सम्पन्न हुआ, खिताब को टीम महेन्द्रा ने अपने नाम किया। पेसिफिक प्रीमियर लीग के चौथे सीजन में आठ टीमों ने अंतिम दो में पहुंचने के लिए काफी संघर्ष किया और बेहतरीन खेल देखने को मिला। फाइनल मैच महेन्द्रा और पेसिफिक ऑर्गेनिक के बीच खेला गया जिसे महेन्द्रा ने आसानी से जीत लिया।

पेसिफिक स्पोर्ट्स कॉम्पलेक्स करनपुर में हुए फाइनल मैच और प्रतियोगिता के समापन समारोह में अतिथि के रूप में उपस्थित आरसीए सचिव महेन्द्र शर्मा, एस. के. खेतान ग्रुप के मैनेजिंग डायरेक्टर एस.के. खेतान, वण्डर सीमेंट के वाइस प्रेसिडेंट सिद्धार्थ सिंघवी, युवा किसान नेता कुबेर सिंह चावडा, पीपीएल संस्थापक अमन अग्रवाल, सह-संस्थापक मनोज चौधरी, कमिश्नर डॉ. प्रकाश जैन, ओर्गेनाईजिंग सेक्रेटरी यशवंत पालीवाल ने विजेता टीम को ट्राॅफी दी। श्रेष्ठ प्रदर्शन के लिए महेन्द्रा के तन्मय तिवारी को मैन ऑफ दी मैच का पुरस्कार दिया गया।

सोजतिया मार्वलस के सौरभ चौहान मैन ऑफ दी सीरीज, यूएसए ग्लोबल के युवराज सिंह बेस्ट बेट्समैन, महेन्द्रा के सचिन यादव बेस्ट बॉलर, सोजतिया मार्वलस के विश्वजीत सिंह भीण्डर बेस्ट फिल्डर रहे, इन चारों खिलाडयों को ट्राॅफी के साथ एसएस कम्पनी की ओर से एक-एक क्रिकेट किट भी दिया गया है।

पीपीएल संस्थापक अमन अग्रवाल ने बताया कि पीपीएल की शुरूआत स्थानीय स्तर पर की गयी थी, धीरे-धीरे इसकी लोकप्रियता बढती जा रही है। स्थानीय, राज्य और राष्ट्रीय स्तर के खिलाडयों के साथ इसमें विदेशी खिलाडयों ने अपनी प्रतिभा दिखाई है। चौथे संस्करण में फ्रेन्चाइजी और खिलाडयों में प्रतियोगिता को लेकर जबरदस्त उत्साह देखा गया । आगामी वर्षों में इसे आईपीएल की तर्ज पर करवाने का लक्ष्य है, अगले साल प्रतियोगिता डे – नाइट के रूप में करवाने की योजना है।

मुख्य अतिथि आरसीए सचिव महेन्द्र शर्मा ने कहा कि राजस्थान में इस तरह की प्रतियोगिताओं के आयोजन से नये खिलाडयों को अपनी प्रतिभा दिखाने का अवसर मिलता है । साथ ही उन्होंने आयोजकों को बधाई देते हुए कहा कि पीपीएल में नये खिलाडयों द्वारा अच्छा क्रिकेट देखने को मिला और ये उनके लिए सीखने का अच्छा अवसर है।

सह-संस्थापक मनोज चौधरी ने बताया कि फाइनल में पेसिफिक ऑर्गेनिक पहले बल्लेबाजी करते हुए पूरी तरह से लडखडाती हुई नजर आयी और 8 विकेट खोकर 128 रन ही बना पायी, टीम की ओर से सोमराज बिश्नोई ने 5 छक्कों की मदद से 62 बॉल में 70 रन तथा हितेश पाखरोत ने 11 बॉल में 14 रन के योगदान किया । टी-20 फोरमेट के अनुसार आसान से लक्ष्य का पीछा करने उतरी महेन्द्रा की टीम ने मनोज त्यागी के 56 बॉल 51 रन, तन्मय तिवारी के 22 बॉल 41 रन तथा करण सिंह के 26 बॉल में 25 रन की मदद तीन विकेट के नुकसान पर जीत हासिल कर ली। महेन्द्रा की ओर से सचिन यादव ने 2, रोहित सुथार और ध्रुव परमार ने एक-एक विकेट लिया। पेसिफिक ऑर्गेनिक के देव नारायण वेद, प्रद्युमन पारिख और हितेश पाखरोत ने एक-एक विकेट लिया।

पेसिफिक ऑर्गेनिक रनर अप रही।

एस. के. खेतान ग्रुप के मैनेजिंग डायरेक्टर एस.के. खेतान ने कहा कि वे खिलाडयों और इस तरह की प्रतियोगिताओं में सहयोग के लिए वे हमेशा तत्पर हैं। प्रतियोगिता में खेल के स्तर को देखकर कहा जा सकता है कि यहां खेले हुए खिलाडी जल्दी ही राष्ट्रीय – अन्तरराष्ट्रीय स्तर पर खेलेंगे। वण्डर सीमेंट के वाइस प्रेसिडेंट सिद्धार्थ सिंघवी ने कहा कि वण्डर सीमेंट क्रिकेट अकेडमी खिलाडयों को आगे बढाने के लिए उच्चस्तरीय कोचिंग और सुविधाएं प्रदान कर रही है और भविष्य में इसका विस्तार किया जाएगा। युवा किसान नेता कुबेर सिंह चावडा ने कहा कि पीपीएल टूर्नामेंट से ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों के क्रिकेटरों को अपनी प्रतिभा दिखाने का अवसर मिला है, उन्होंने कहा कि सिर्फ ग्रामीण अंचल के खिलाडयों के लिए भी इस तरह की प्रतियोगिता होने से कई और खिलाडी सामने आ सकते हैं।

कमिश्नर डॉ. प्रकाश जैन ने बताया कि क्रिकेट का खेल आपसी सामन्जस्य, टीम भावना और मेहनत की सीख देता है। पीपीएल में स्थानीय से लेकर विदेशी खिलाडयों का होना इसकी लोकप्रियता का दर्शाता है। आयोजन समिति की ओर से धन्यवाद देते हुए उन्होंने कहा कि किसी भी खेल प्रतियोगिता में खिलाडयों की उपस्थिति, अनुशासन और प्रदर्शन खेल के स्तर को ऊँचा उठा देता है पीपीएल में भी यही देखने को मिला है।

आर्गेनाईजिंग सेक्रेटरी यशवंत पालीवाल ने कहा कि फ्रेन्चाइजी, खिलाडयों और दर्शकों के उत्साह को देखते हुए आगामी टूर्नामेंट को अधिक रोचक बनाया जाएगा। इस बार दर्शकों के लिए कैच पकडने पर विशेष पुरस्कार रखे गये थे ।

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News

Udaipur-based Online Furniture Platform WoodenStreet raises $30 mn in funding round led by WestBridge Capital

Udaipur/Jaipur-based online Furniture & home decor platform, Woodenstreet.com, has raised around $30 Mn in series-B round of funding led by WestBridge Capital, in both Primary and Secondary investment.

By far, it is the largest funding raised by any vertical furniture player across India in the year 2022. Lately, WoodenStreet had closed series-A funding of $3 million in 2020 from IAN and RVCF (Rajasthan venture capital funds).

Established in 2015 by Lokendra Singh Ranawat, Virendra Ranawat, Dinesh Singh Rathore and Vikas Baheti, Wooden Street has 50 plus stores in all major cities and claims to serve more than 15 lakh customers in 300 plus cities across India.

This startup offers complete home solutions including solidwood & modular furniture, kitchen & wardrobes, home décor, lighting, furnishings. Moreover, recently WoodenStreet has introduced the office furniture section thereby making it an emerging leader in the online furniture & decor market.

Furthermore, WoodenStreet also deals with 6 state of art manufacturing, R&D facilities spread across the country to meet their budding requirements.

On being asked about the vision with this round of funding, the Co-founder and CEO of the company Mr. Lokendra Ranawat said- “Our aim has always been to offer products that improves the aesthetics and comfort of Indian homes. We focus on design and innovation, thereby offering functional and designer items at affordable price. We are happy to welcome WestBridge Capital, that shares our common vision of creating better products and awesome shopping experience for Indian customers”

“WoodenStreet has grown 100% yoy from past three years while maintaining profitability at net level, and we plan to achieve a turnover of INR 600 cr in the coming two years with this fund raise” adds Co-founder and CFO Dinesh Singh Rathore.

Co-founder Virendra Ranawat and Vikas Baheti said that Woodenstreet has established itself as one of the most preferred brand among the customers when it comes to buying designer Indian furniture. Moreover, since most of us shall be working from home in the foreseeable future, WoddenStreet came up with an idea of introducing the entirely new office and modular furniture section.

Furthermore, WoodenStreet has planned to open a total of 200 stores in the coming 2 years, and has also decided to onboard close to 3000 home décor brands under its platform.

Their latest capital infusion will be focusing on new market expansion, technological development, expansion of supply chain, and creation of new category offerings.

“We are impressed by WoodenStreet’s ability to scale capital efficiently in a strategic consumer category. The founders focus on customer delight is what excites us and we look forward to a very long partnership with them.” said Sandeep Singhal, co-founder of WestBridge Capital.

WestBridge Capital is an experienced investment firm, managing over $7 billion of capital funds across India and Mauritius that focusses on investments in India. WestBridge Capital leverages both its capital and experience to help companies prosper. WestBridge seeks to partner with some of India’s most promising mid-sized companies run by outstanding entrepreneurs and management teams for the long-term, be it public or private. By far, the team at WestBridge has led investments in over 130 companies. Armed with the wealth of experience, their team is able to assist its portfolio companies in many areas including strategy, operations, management recruiting and fundraising.